Dnes je 20. listopadu 2018  | Hlavní stránka | Energetika | Ochrana přírody | Odpady | Ekoporadenství | Zpravodaj Ďáblík | Atlas OZE | Summary in english language Zusammenfasung in deutscher sprache
Základní informace
 » Historie území
 » Současnost
      » Vojenský újezd Boletice
      » NATURA
      » Turistika
 » Budoucnost
 » Příroda
      » Charakteristika území
      » ®ivočichové
      » Rostliny
      » Biotopy
 » Výzkum
 » Památky
 » Statistické údaje
Kauzy
 » Chlum
 » ©pičák
Infocentrum
 » Aktuality
 » Akce
 » Archiv
Dokumenty
 » Z médií
 » Tiskové zprávy
 » Petice
 » Ostatní
Publikace
 » Broľury
 » Skládačky
 » Studie
 » Mapy
Co můľete udělat vy?
Fotogalerie
Odkazy

vyhledávání


Úvod

Boletice - a Natural Jewel

The proclamation of the Special Protection Area (SPA) and Site of Community Importance (SCI) to Boletice was preceded by a campaign of nongovernmental environmental organizations coordinated by the environmental association Calla from České Budějovice and was also supported both by some scientific institutions and individual biologists. The aim of the campaign was an implementation of Boletice to Natura 2000 and the protection of nature values in the military area, and against the expansion of undesirable investment activities.

The highland area, with its varied geological subsoil, is situated in an area bounded by the towns of Český Krumlov and Volary and by the Lipno reservoir. The prevailing soil types are brown woody soils, gleys and pseudogleys. The highest peak of the area is Lysá (1228 m above sea level), the lowest point is Dolanský potok near Křenov (548 m above see level).

Climatic conditions are rather varied mainly due to the altitude effect. Whereas the high leeward hillsides on the west are wet and cold, central and eastern parts are warmer because of the rainfall shadow. Therefore many thermophilous species reach their altitudinal maximum within the Czech Republic in Boletice. On the other hand, temperature inversions occur in the valleys. This area is the headwater of the Blanice river and some other streams. Both broad-leaved forests and mixed forests formed by beeches, firs and spruces grew originally in the majority of the Boletice area. The natural forest-free area was limited to small enclaves of rock formations and peat bogs. A mosaic of woods and valuable forestless habitats (meadows, shrubs) resulted as a consequence of human activities in the central and eastern parts of area.

The first fragmental information concerning the nature in Boletice originated from the beginning of 19th century. Since this time the area has been absent from the interests of biologists. Information about the nesting of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) came from the 1970 and 1980s, but the results of more extensive botanical study were not published. More systematic research focused predominantly on botany. Ornithology and entomology only began in the 1990s. The studies served as the groundwork for the foundation of the Special Protection Area Boletice (size 23 542 hectares) on 15 December 2004.

The subject of conservation in the Special Protection Area are five bird species - the Hazel Grouse (Bonasa bonasia), Corncrake (Crex crex), Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum), Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) and Woodlark (Lullula arborea). From an ornithological point of view, the Boletice area is an extraordinarily valuable area of Central European importance. Altogether 53 specially protected bird species, 66 species integrated into the proposal of Red List of Birds of the Czech Republic, 40 interesting species of European nature conservation and 28 species of Annex I of EC Birds Directive live in the area. Besides the species mentioned above, other remarkable birds have been found there - e.g. Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago), Ural Owl (Strix uralensis), Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus), Wryneck (Jynx torquilla), Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria) or Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes). Thus, the species with completely different ecological requirements can be found not far from each other in Boletice area. Moreover, many species that are otherwise very rare in south Bohemia nest there - e.g. Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria) and Stonechat (Saxicola torquata).

The Special Protection Area Boletice is unique also for other reasons. Species of protection in the Site of Community Importance are also two vertebrates species (lynx - Lynx lynx, bullhead - Cottus gobio), four invertebrates species (ground beetle Carabus menetriesi, two Maculinea butterflies - Maculinea telejus and M. nausithous and freshwater pearl mussel - Margaritifera margaritifera) and two plant species (Ligularia sibirica and Gentianella bohemica). The presence of many protected and endangered plant species shows also the habitat diversity.

In total, 49 types of natural habitats (21 of them belong to the European important habitats and 9 to the priority habitats according the Habitats Directive) were determined there during a biotop survey for European ecological network Natura 2000. Some habitats have developed to a large extent, diversity or quality. The priority habitats of Boletice area are following: ravine forests, Central European basiphilous thermophilous oak forests, pine mire forests with Vaccinium, birch mire forests, Pinus rotundata bog forests, montane gray alder galleries, ash-alder alluvial forests, submontane and montane Nardus grasslands and open raised bogs. The forests cover 60% of SPA Boletice. They are predominantly formed by herb-rich and acidophilous beech forests which belong to the European important habitats.

Nowadays two main opinions about future of the Boletice area exist. Whereas the first one takes into acount the conservation of the present military use, the second one promotes an abolishment of the military status and a conversion of the area into civilian use. We here try to sum up the main pros and cones of both approaches.

In the first place, the present situation guarantees the protection of unique Boletice nature from eutrophication danger. The second important positive point is the uniform state ownership of the whole Boletice area, which warrants the long-term successional cycles in larger areas. A side effect of military activity is maintenance of valuable localities in such stages that are essential for the survival of many threatened organisms. The disadvantage of the current situation is undoubtedly the fact that the public can not enjoy the beauties of nature there. With the exception of training army, only a small number of people live and work in the area. Other potential visitors or scientists need special permission to get there. The first step to make Boletice area more accessible for people could be the opening of some secure border parts for so-called soft tourism. The abolishment of the military status could lead to realization of plan of huge ski center in the Chlum or ©pičák area. Such a project is in discrepancy with nature protection of Boletice area. If the army abandons the area, tourist use considerate to the nature of area would be promoted. The network of hiking trails, cycle tracks, briddle-paths and trails for cross-country skiing crossing the Boletice area could serve as educational trail at the same time. The visitors could use current villages and towns situated mostly outside SPA Boletice for accomodation, boarding and for parking. The great problem of the variation mentioned above is funding of management of some valuable habitats. The alternative can not be the management of only some top valuable parts and "common" farming in the remaining area.

The importance of unique Boletice nature surpasses the borders of the Czech Republic - this s documented by its integration into network Natura 2000 as Spatial Protection Area and Important Bird Area. Therefore its nature value must be protected and maintained for the future.

Thank you for potential voluntary contributions toward the expenses connected with Boletice nature preservation campaign.

Bank account:
Calla: 3202800-544/0600, GE Capital Bank, České Budějovice, The Czech Republic

 © 2000 Calla  
Calla   |   Fráni ©rámka 35, 370 01 České Budějovice   |   tel: 384 971 934, fax: 387 310 166   |   calla(at)calla.cz